28 June 2014

Life History of the Fivebar Swordtail v2.0

Life History of the Fivebar Swordtail (Graphium antiphates itamputi)
An earlier version of the life history of the Fivebar Swordtail can be found by clicking this link.

Butterfly Biodata:
Genus: Graphium Scopoli, 1777
Species: antiphates Cramer, 1775
Subspecies: itamputi Butler, 1885
Wingspan of Adult Butterfly: 55-70mm
Local Caterpillar Host Plant: Uvaria grandiflora (Annonaceae).

Physical Description of Adult Butterfly:
The Fivebar Swordtail has a long and sword-like tail at vein 4 on the hindwing. On the upperside, the wings are white with a series of black stripes extending from the costa of the forewing. In the distal and basal areas, the inter-stripe space is yellowish green. The tornal area is greyish on the hindwing. On the underside, the forewing is marked as above, but the hindwing has its basal half green with black stripes and spots, and its distal half yellowish orange with small embedded black spots. The body is white in ground colour and yellowish orange dorso-laterally. There is also a lateral band of black spots, contiguous for most segments.

Field Observations of Butterfly Behaviour:
The Fivebar Swordtail is moderately common in Singapore. It is essentialy a forest denizen. The adults are strong and swift flyers. When in flight, they can easily be mistaken as white Pierid butterflies. The adults have been observed to visit flowers for nectar. The male is usually photographed puddling on damp ground in the nature reserve.

27 June 2014

Butterflies Galore! : Blue Pansy

Butterflies Galore!
The Blue Pansy (Junonia orithya wallacei)

The Blue Pansy (Junonia orithya wallacei) is one of four species in the genus that is found in Singapore. The species is a fast flyer and is often very skittish. The males feature an attractive upperside with bright blue hindwings. The species is common in urban parks & gardens and is usually active on hot sunny days. The local subspecies found in Malaysia and Singapore has the distinction of being named after the renowned ecologist and adventurer, Alfred Russell Wallace.

The underside of the Blue Pansy is more cryptic, and allows it to camouflage itself amongst dried leaves and undergrowth, when it is at rest with its wings folded upright. Here, it was photographed feeding on a Lantana flower at Tampines Eco Green.

25 June 2014

Butterflies Galore! : Club Silverline

Butterflies Galore!
The Club Silverline (Spindasis syama terana)

This pretty little Lycaenid is one of two species of the genus Spindasis to occur in Singapore. In certain localities, the Club Silverline and its cousin, the Long Banded Silverline (Spindasis lohita senama) can occasionally be found in numbers, and would be considered moderately common. The Silverlines are so named because of the silvery markings on the undersides of the wings, framed by reddish brown or black streaks.

The Club Silverline is a fast-flyer but can often be encountered feeding at flowering plants, like this one is shown, feeding on the flower of the Bandicoot Cherry (Leea indica) at an urban park in Singapore. At certain hours of the day, the butterfly can be observed to open its wings to sunbathe in the sunshine, displaying its beautiful deep blue uppersides.

24 June 2014

Butterflies Galore! : Brown Awl

Butterflies Galore!
The Brown Awl (Badamia exclamationis)

I've always been intrigued by the latin species name of this Skipper. It's as though the scientist who first described it screamed out loud when he first saw this butterfly. This medium sized Hesperiidae is moderately rare in Singapore, usually observed singly in the early hours of the morning. It has also been observed to puddle occasionally, but where it is encountered, it is more often seen feeding on moisture off damp rocks, stone walls and timber structures in the early morning hours.

It is a fast flyer and is usually skittish. When disturbed, it flies off and hides on the underside of a leaf to try to conceal itself. The butterfly is medium brown on the upperside, with an elongate white hyaline streaks in the cell. The underside, shown here, is a pale greyish brown and unmarked. The abdomen of the butterfly is yellow-striped. This shot was taken by young ButterflyCircle member Jonathan Soong.

21 June 2014

Butterfly of the Month - June 2014

Butterfly of the Month - June 2014
The Burmese Lascar (Lasippa heliodore dorelia)

We head towards the mid-year mark of the year 2014, as the month of June draws to a close in a week's time. The weather here in Singapore remains hot and humid, as the intermonsoon period gives way to the stronger south-westerly winds coming from Sumatra. There were a few days when the full force of the "Sumatras" bore down on our little island. The "Sumatras" are line of thunderstorms which usually occur during the Southwest Monsoon season from May to October each year. These squalls develop at night over Sumatra and move eastwards towards Singapore in the pre-dawn and early morning hours. They are often characterised by sudden onset of strong gusty surface winds and heavy rain lasting from 1 to 2 hours, often uprooting trees and causing some damage.

The predicted dry effects of this year's El Nino has not showed its full force yet, but the hot and dry weather patterns are beginning to show, with a number of days of temperatures exceeding 34deg C. From a personal perspective, June has been an interesting month for me, as I travelled to Myanmar for a short business trip. Officially known as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, the 676,578 sqkm country is one of the 10 countries of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Myanmar also shares its border with five countries - India, Bangladesh, China, Laos and Thailand, besides having a long coastline stretching from the Indian Ocean to the Andaman Sea.

I was looking forward to re-visit Myanmar after my last trip over ten years ago in 2003. Back then, it was governed by the military junta and moving around the-then capital city of Yangon (Rangoon) was rather restricted. Upon reaching Yangon International airport, I was pleasantly surprised to clear the immigration with little fuss nor delays. My first impression of the city, was that there were a lot more cars today than when I visited Yangon over ten years ago. The armed military personnel, who were very visible at practically every street corner then, was markedly missing now. Myanmar also has a very unique traffic arrangement where the cars are right-hand drive (like in Singapore) but they drive on the right side of the road (as they do in the USA)!

The majestic Shwedagon Pagoda is an iconic structure in Yangon

Yangon was bustling with life, as the people went about their daily lives and there was a perceptible buzz in the city. An obvious difference was that my Singapore mobile phone worked without a hitch - foreign mobile phones were almost "illegal" to carry around ten years ago!

Interior of one of the ancillary temples flanking the Shwedagon Pagoda

After dealing with the business end of my trip, our entourage paid a visit to the Shwedagon Pagoda complex. A visit to Yangon would certainly not be complete without a trip to view the Golden Pagoda, as the Shwedagon Pagoda is sometimes referred to.

A view of some of the terracotta temples and stupas in Bagan

We then flew about 400km north to the ancient city of Bagan (formerly Pagan), about a 90-minute flight time on a turboprop ATR 72-600 domestic flight. This is the first time I had boarded a flight without having any form of ID check. Hence everyone on the plane was flying "incognito" as there would not have been any record of who was on the flight at all!

Our "wings" to Bagan.  Ever heard of Yadanarpon Airways?

Perhaps domestic flights in Myanmar remain in an era of "innocence" as far as aviation security is concerned, and bringing a bottle of mineral water on board the plane is not something that travellers would need to be worried about! On our flight back to Yangon, we were even more surprised when the check-in personnel told us that "you may sit anywhere you like!", since there were no seat numbers on our boarding passes.

An evening view across a landscape of temples and pagodas in Bagan

Bagan is situated in the middle of Myanmar, largely on the banks of the Ayeyarwardy (Irrawaddy) River and was the capital of the kingdom of Pagan from the 9th to 13th centuries, the first kingdom to unify the regions that would later constitute modern Myanmar. The obvious draw of Bagan would be its historical and archaeological monuments amongst its 4,440 ancient monuments, amongst which were many temples, pagodas/stupas, mediation caves and other structures dotting the landscape covering about 20 sq miles. It was amazing, standing amongst these architectural wonders, constructed in an era over a thousand years ago, that had few or no machines in the building industry.

A well-preserved terracotta stupa in Bagan

Myanmar is still very safe for tourists, as we were told that crime is very low, and our experience in the two cities that we visited corroborated that view. The locals were friendly and spoke reasonably good English.  Every tourist attraction, whether a temple, pagoda or the local marketplace that we visited, came with its attendant bunch of "salesmen" who peddled a range of postcards, souvenirs, gemstones and local garments.  I must say that their persistence to persuade our entourage to part with our money would certainly be something useful for any sales personnel in our modern world!

It was a pity that I did not get to visit any nature areas to check out Myanmar's butterflies, but obviously the unspoilt environment and vast tracts of lushly forested land would no doubt harbour a range of butterfly species that would hold any butterfly enthusiast in awe. This ends my short introduction to my visit to Myanmar and I look forward to visiting the country again, and saying "Mingalaba" (Hello) to my Myanmese friends again.

All the stories about Myanmar would not have done justice to such a beautiful country, if I did not feature something about Burma amongst our butterflies. So we introduce our Butterfly of the Month for June 2014 - the Burmese Lascar (Lasippa heliodore dorelia). It is a noteworthy observation that several English common names of butterflies in the region carry the "Burmese" prefix. Perhaps some of the early collectors were active in Burma in those days.

The Burmese Lascar is one of four extant "Lascars" found in Singapore that feature small-sized butterflies with black and orange bands across their wings. The four species are very similar in appearance and almost impossible to identify when in flight. All are weak flyers, but skittish and will quickly fly up to the tree canopy if disturbed. Most prefer the sanctuary of Singapore's forested nature reserves but can sometimes be observed in public parks and gardens

Top : ID Key to separate the Burmese Lascar from the Malayan Lascar.
Middle : Burmese Lascar (Lasippa heliodore dorelia)
Bottom : Malayan Lascar (Lasippa tiga siaka)  

The Burmese Lascar is very similar in appearance to its close relative, the Malayan Lascar (Lasippa tiga siaka). The primary distinguishing feature to separate the two species is the submarginal spot in space 3 of the forewing. In the Burmese Lascar, this spot is barely wider than the two adjacent spots in spaces 2 and 4, whilst in the Malayan Lascar, this spot is much wider than the two adjacent spots.

A Burmese Lascar stops to puddle on a sweat-soaked camera strap

The Burmese Lascar is relatively uncommon and prefers the forested areas within the nature reserves. It is sometimes seen feeding on the ripened fruits of the Singapore Rhododendron (Melastoma malabathricum). Individuals are often encountered gliding and sunbathing along sunlit footpaths in heavily forested areas. Males of the species are also observed to puddle at footpaths and sandy streambanks occasionally.

A Burmese Lascar puddles at a muddy footpath

The underside of the Burmese Lascar is paler but resembles the upperside black and orange bands. The early stages of the species has been documented in Singapore, where the caterpillars feed on Rourea minor, rourea aspenifolia and Cnestis palala.

Text by Khew SK : Photos by Sunny Chir, Khew SK, Loke PF, Nelson Ong & Horace Tan

Special thanks to Dr TL Seow for the additional ID Key features shown in this article

19 June 2014

Butterflies Galore! : Lesser Darkwing

Butterflies Galore!
The Lesser Darkwing (Allotinus unicolor unicolor)

This Miletinae appears to be the only species of the genus Allotinus left extant in Singapore, although several other species were recorded by the early authors. Thus far, we have not been able to reliably ascertain if the other species are still lurking around in our forests, except for this Lesser Darkwing. As the "carnivorous" caterpillars of this species feed on coccids, aphids and mealy bugs, they are not associated with any particular host plant and hence can be very widely distributed where their caterpillar food source is available.

This Lesser Darkwing was shot by ButterflyCircle member Loke PF. The butterfly shows its typical perching pose, its long legs lifting the butterfly up from its perch in a proud stance. Its forelegs are usually folded against its thorax, giving the perception that the butterfly has got only 4 legs, rather than 6!

14 June 2014

Life History of the Formosan Swift

Life History of the Formosan Swift (Borbo cinnara)

Butterfly Biodata:
Genus: Borbo Evans, 1949
Species: cinnara Wallace, 1866
Wingspan of Adult Butterfly: 30-34mm
Caterpillar Local Host Plants: Paspalum conjugatum (Poaceae; common name: Buffalo Grass), Setaria barbata (Poaceae; common name: Bristly Foxtail Grass),

Centotheca lappacea (Poaceae, common name: Sefa).

A female Formosan Swift.

A male Formosan Swift.

Physical Description of Adult Butterfly:
On the upperside, the wings are brown with the basal area yellowish green. The forewing has a yellow non-hyaline spot in space 1b and a decreasing series of hyaline spots from spaces 2 to 4, 6 to 8 and two spots in the cell. In some specimens, one or both cell spots could be absent. The hindwing has a few obscure hyaline spots, and does not have any cell spot. On the underside, the wings yellowish brown with greenish scaling. The hindwing has whitish spots in spaces 2-4 and 6, where the spot in space 4 is typically small or even absent.

The upperside view of a female Formosan Swift.

The upperside view of a male Formosan Swift.

A worn specimen of a male Formosan Swift.

Field Observations of Butterfly Behaviour:
The Formosan Swift is relatively common in Singapore. Sightings are rather frequent and spread over many parts of Singapore, at locations such as nature reserves, neighbourhood parks, offshore islands, wastelands and park connectors. The swift flying adults have been observed to visit flowers and sunbath in sunny weather.

12 June 2014

Butterflies Galore! : Common Three Ring

Butterflies Galore! 
The Common Three Ring (Ypthima pandocus corticaria)

In Singapore, this is the largest of the Ypthima species. Though common, the Common Three Ring is rather local in distribution and keeps close to the forest edges in grassy patches. The species usually flutters close to the forest floor, sometimes foraging amongst leaf litter. When at rest, it stops to perch with its wings folded upright. At certain hours of the day, it opens its wings to sunbathe at sunlit spots.

An earlier article on this blog showcases this "Cinderella of Butterflies" as one species that is usually ignored by butterfly watchers. This shot of a Common Three Ring, photographed by ButterflyCircle member Loke PF last weekend, is unique in that the species is not often encountered puddling. In this case, it was puddling on a muddy footpath - a behaviour that is not usually associated with this species.

11 June 2014

Butterflies Galore! : Anderson's Grass Yellow

Butterflies Galore!
The Anderson's Grass Yellow (Eurema andersonii andersonii)

This species is another forest species that is more often encountered within the sanctuary of the forested nature reserves of Singapore. It is moderately common but usually encountered singly. It is difficult to distinguish this species with certainty from its lookalike cousins in the Eurema genus, particularly when in flight. It also displays the habit of hiding upside down under a leaf shelter when disturbed.

This abnormally small individual was encountered last weekend in the Central Catchment nature reserves. Although it features the usual single cell spot on the underside of the forewing, the prominent subapical streak that is usually associated with this species is also missing. Here, it was photographed puddling by ButterflyCircle member Anthony Wong.

10 June 2014

Butterflies Galore! : Chocolate Grass Yellow

Butterflies Galore!
The Chocolate Grass Yellow (Eurema sari sodalis)

Amongst all the lookalike Grass Yellow species in Singapore, the Chocolate Grass Yellow is the more distinctive and easy to identify. The large dark brown apical patch on the underside of the hindwing instantly sets it aside from all the other Eurema species. The Chocolate Grass Yellow prefers the sanctuary of the forested areas and is less often encountered in manicured urban parks and gardens.

The species is often encountered puddling at muddy paths and sandy streambanks, sometimes in groups of a dozen or more individuals. When it is disturbed, the Chocolate Grass Yellow has a habit of flying under a leaf to rest upside down, with its wings folded upright, as is shown here in this photo. Several other species amongst the Eurema also display this behaviour.

07 June 2014

Four New Discoveries!

Four New Discoveries in May & June 2014!
Records of new butterfly species in Singapore

Over the past four to six weeks in the months of May and June 2014, Singapore's mainstream and social media was abuzz with the "invasion" of the Tropical Swallowtail Moth (Lyssa zampa) all over Singapore. The large grey-and-white moth, started appearing in residential apartments, office buildings, shopping malls, multi-storey car parks and is too obvious to go unnoticed by all and sundry. There were comments that the appearance of these moths was a bad omen, and that unfortunate events will follow. These are usually common old wives' tales associated with moths and not surprising.

The by-now well known in Singapore moth, the Tropical Swallowtail Moth (Lyssa zampa)

The media reports also featured interviews with ecologists and experts and I was also requested for my opinion on the sudden appearance of these large moths in Singapore. Amongst the many theories and postulations put forth by the experts ranged from the unusually dry weather in the first two months of 2014, the sudden flowering of many species of trees in Singapore and the reduced predation pressure on the caterpillars and adult moths that coincided with the end of the bird migratory season.

A close up view of the Tropical Swallowtail Moth (Lyssa zampa)

Even as Singaporeans wondered about this moth, which continued to appear in numbers everywhere, the Malaysian news reported even larger numbers of the moths across the Causeway, with pictures of lighted buildings literally covered with hundreds of them!

North East winds blowing from Malaysia towards Singapore : Source - National Environment Agency, Singapore

Whilst the moth made the news and piqued the curiosity of the public, butterfly enthusiasts in Singapore also had a lot of excitement with sightings of four new butterfly species over the past four to six weeks! The months of April and May coincide with the end of the North East Monsoon months where light north easterly winds continue to blow from Malaysia towards Singapore. As these are months that also see the increase in butterfly numbers in Malaysia, the late north easterly winds could also have aided some of these butterflies in their journey southwards to Singapore.

The newly discovered Striped Jay (Graphium bathycles bathycloides)

Coupled with the end of the bird migratory season, the reduced predation of butterflies and other sources of food by these birds, could also have been a plausible explanation for the ability for some butterflies to survive the journey across the Straits of Johor into Singapore without being eaten.

Starting with the most recent species spotted in early June, was the Striped Jay (Graphium bathycles bathycloides) by Tea Yi Kai. Whilst on a weekday outing in the Central Catchment Nature Reserves, he spotted this fast-flying Graphium puddling with a number of other Papilionidae. Although this was the first individual to be spotted and identified, Yi Kai also received news from a birder Stanley Feng that he shot another Striped Jay some time back in Oct 2010, after Yi Kai posted his discovery on social media.

A Striped Jay shot in Endau Rompin National Park, Malaysia

Nevertheless, we record this seasonal migratory species (or seasonal stray) as species #312 in the Singapore Butterfly Checklist. Thanks to Yi Kai for spotting and getting photographic evidence of this species in Singapore, and contributing his photos to ButterflyCircle. The Striped Jay is considered a seasonally common lowland species in Malaysia, and often photographed amongst large numbers of puddlers at sandy streambanks in the forested areas. It is a fast-flyer like its other cousins in the Graphium genus and is certainly possible that it flew over from nearby Johor, aided by the winds.

Jerome's shot of a Great Jay (Graphium euryplus mecisteus) another new discovery for Singapore

Just two days before Yi Kai's discovery, ButterflyCircle member Jerome Chua was also at almost the same location as Yi Kai in the Central Catchment and he photographed a tattered individual of another Graphium species. When he posted the photo, it was quickly validated as another of the "Jay" species - the Great Jay (Graphium euryplus mecisteus). Again, this species has never been recorded from Singapore before, and is now added to the Checklist as species #313.

A shot of the Great Jay at Endau Rompin National Park, Malaysia

The Great Jay is relatively rarer than the Striped Jay, gauging from our own experience from trips to Endau Rompin National Park in central Johor in Malaysia, and other butterfly-rich areas further up north. The Blue Jay (Graphium evemon eventus), Common Jay (Graphium doson evemonides) and Striped Jay tend to be more often photographed on these outings than the Great Jay.

But it could be due to the seasonality of some of these closely related species. Equally as fast-flying as its other cousins, the Great Jay could also have flown here on its own steam, perhaps with a little bit of help from the north-easterly winds.

A series of shots of the Red Helen by Clayton Low, using his mobile phone

Just around the time when Jerome discovered the Great Jay, another butterfly watcher, Clayton Low, was at the rather urban location of the National University of Singapore in the southern part of Singapore, when he spotted a large black swallowtail. Using his mobile phone, the quick thinking Clayton managed to get three shots of the swallowtail when it was feeding on the flowers of the Ixora. Another surprise new discovery! This time, it was the Red Helen (Papilio helenus helenus), another species that was not in the checklists of the early authors.

A Red Helen shot in Malaysia

The Red Helen is closely related to the two extant species in Singapore - the Great Helen (Papilio iswara iswara) and the Blue Helen (Papilio prexaspes prexaspes). It is not rare in the lowlands in Malaysia, and outings amongst butterfly watchers often yielded many shots of this species puddling where more than five or six individuals are seen together. Thanks to Clayton for contributing his photos to be featured in this blog.

A group of puddling Papilionidae.  How many Red Helens do you see?

How this species managed to make it so far south, deep into Singapore, is another mystery. Clayton's photos of what he spotted showed a relatively pristine individual, minus the usual wear-and-tear of a butterfly that has survived a long migratory journey from up north. Could it be an escapee from the nearby Sentosa Butterfly Park, where the Red Helen is one of the species featured in the enclosure? Or this individual was just robust (and lucky!) enough to make the journey into Singapore from Malaysia without getting bashed up? Nevertheless, we record this as species #314 in the Singapore Checklist.

A dead female Lesser Albatross (Appias paulina distanti) shot by Wong Chung Cheong

Finally, Yong Yik Shih, a nature enthusiast, sent a photo of a dead butterfly to the ButterflyCircle chat group. It was shot by a bird photographer Wong Chung Cheong at the Rivervale area in Singapore. This was clearly a female Lesser Albatross (Appias paulina distanti), another new record for Singapore. The Pieridae species are strong flyers and known for their migratory ability, and certain species like the Catopsilia spp. even bear the name "Emigrant" in their English Common Name! It is certainly possible that this female Lesser Albatross made it across the Causeway on her own steam but succumbed to either fatigue or even the venomous bite of a spider that ended her short life.

Another female Lesser Albatross captured by Abiel Neo in May 2005 in Singapore

Nevertheless, credit to Yik Shih and Chung Cheong for contributing their discovery to this blog, and we record this species as #315 in the Checklist. Upon noticing this discovery, veteran ButterflyCircle member Steven Neo reported that his son, Abiel Neo, captured another female Lesser Albatross many years back at SAFTI Military Institute in Jurong on the western side of Singapore. Abiel was serving his national service at SAFTI when he came across the stray female Lesser Albatross, and the specimen is labeled as found on 15 May 2005. Again, another sighting in the month of May!

Top : A male Lesser Albatross shot in Fraser's Hill   Bottom : Three male Lesser Albatrosses puddling in Endau Rompin National Park, Malaysia

The Lesser Albatross is seasonally common in Malaysia, and we have encountered males of the species puddling in numbers at sandy streambanks in the forest. Coincidentally, in the past two months, there have been many sightings of the related Chocolate Albatross (Appias lyncida vasava) a recorded seasonal migrant to Singapore, ranging from Seletar Country Club to the nature reserves and all the way down south to Gardens by the Bay! A female Chocolate Albatross was even observed ovipositing on its caterpillar host plant in the Singapore Botanic Gardens.

The past few months have been remarkable in terms of new Lepidoptera sightings, from the currently ubiquitous Lyssa zampa to the new butterfly species observed. Thus far, these seasonal migrants or strays recorded this year are :

  • Malaysian Albatross (Saletara panda distanti) in Apr 2014
  • Red Spot Sawtooth (Prioneris philonome themana) in Apr 2014
  • Lesser Albatross (Appias paulina distanti) in May 2014 (also spotted in May 2005)
  • Red Helen (Papilio helenus helenus) in May 2014
  • Great Jay (Graphium euryplus mecisteus) in May 2014 
  • Striped Jay (Graphium bathycles bathycloides) in June 2014 (also spotted in Oct 2010)

A male Red Helen puddling at Endau Rompin National Park, Malaysia

It would be great if these species are able to somehow breed in Singapore and become naturalised species rather than migratory strays. But we will never know for sure. So do keep your eyes peeled for new butterflies coming across from our neighbouring countries. They certainly do not have to respect geographical and political boundaries like we humans do, and will come and go as they please, as long as the environment and habitats are conducive to their sustainable existence.

Text by Khew SK : Photos by Tea Yi Kai, Jerome Chua, Clayton Low, Wong Chung Cheong, David Fischer, Khew SK, Mark Wong, Abiel Neo & Steven Neo

Special thanks to Tea Yi Kai, Clayton Low, Yong Yik Shih and Wong Chung Cheong for sharing their finds with ButterflyCircle.
  • [C&P4] The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula, A.S. Corbet and H.M. Pendlebury, 4th Edition, Malayan Nature Society, 1992.
  • Butterflies of West Malaysia and Singapore, W.A. Fleming, 2nd Edition, Longmans, 1991
  • Butterflies of Thailand, Pisuth Ek-Amnuay, 2nd Edition, 2012.
  • Butterflies of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore & Thailand, Laurence G Kirton, Beaufoy Publishing, 2014
  • A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Singapore, Khew S.K., Ink On Paper Communications, 2010.
Special remarks on the English Common Names of the butterflies featured in this article : the names are taken from the literature cited above as they are more relevant to the butterflies of the South East Asian region.  There are other references on the Internet, e.g. Wikipedia and other sources like the checklists of butterflies in North Asia and various Indian butterfly fauna literature which refer to these species by different common names.  However, we maintain that reference to the books that are written by authors relevant to South East Asian butterflies would be more applicable and we choose to use the names quoted in these books for our local butterflies, where applicable.